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  1. Winter Expedition Equipment Help

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    Winter Expedition Equipment Help By Sub Zero

    Winter Expedition Essentials

    Choosing winter expedition equipment for the first time can be tough. As with all forms of mountaineering, hiking, walking or camping, packing depends on where you are heading to and how long you are going for.

    As winter is one of the harshest times to go out exploring there are certain necessities you’ll need if you’re daring to head out into the wilderness. Certain equipment deserves space in every pack. You won’t need every item on every trip, but essential equipment can be a lifesaver in an emergency.

    It can be quite stressful knowing what to pack and when, so, luckily, we’ve compiled this handy little list of all the essentials you’ll need for your next winter expedition!

    1. Navigation

    Winter expedition waterproof map cases and pouchesWhatever season you’re going out in, you must know where you are, where you’re going, and how to get back. Always carry a detailed topographic map of the area you are visiting, and place it in a protective case or plastic covering. Always carry a compass too!

    We have a range of different waterproof pouches that are perfect for keeping your navigation equipment safe and dry in all weathers. The thick plastic film and airtight closure system protects the contents from any water penetration, even to depths of up to 10 metres.

    And if you are separated from your party, which can easily happen, a whistle can be a simple but reliable signalling device, so it’s worthwhile packing one.

    1. Insulation

    Winter expedition insulating clothing by Sub ZeroA basic expedition outfit includes inner and outer socks, boots, underwear, trousers, shirt, sweater or fleece jacket, hat, mittens or gloves, and raingear. However, it’s always a good idea to wear a little bit more insulation, just in case!

    When packing, always ask yourself this question: ‘What is needed to survive the worst conditions that could realistically be encountered on this trip?’

    An extra layer of long underwear can add much warmth while adding little weight to a pack. It is also wise to pack an extra hat or balaclava, because they provide more warmth for their weight than any other article of clothing. For your feet, bring an extra pair of thick socks, and for your hands, an extra pair of polyester or fleece mitts. Pack extra tops to keep your torso warm, plus insulated trousers too!



    1. Illumination

    Winter expedition torches and lampsIt’s essential to carry a headlamp or flashlight, just in case. Batteries and bulbs do not last forever, so always carry spares, pack more than you think you need.

    We offer a range of different lighting options to choose from, from headlights you can wear, LED lanterns, and gas lanterns ensuring you have perfect visibility.

    Remember, there are less daylight hours in the winter, so carrying a light with you is always important.




    1. First-Aid Supplies

    Winter expedition first aid kitsCarry and know how to use a first-aid kit, but do not let a first-aid kit give you a false sense of security. The best course of action is to always take the steps necessary to avoid injury or sickness in the first place.

    Your first-aid kit should be compact and sturdy, with the contents wrapped in waterproof packaging. At a minimum, a first-aid kit should include gauze pads in various sizes, roller gauze, small adhesive bandages, butterfly bandages, triangular bandages, battle dressing, adhesive tape, scissors, cleansers or soap, latex gloves, and paper and pencil.

    Consider the length and nature of your trip when deciding what to add to your first aid kit. If you’re travelling on glaciers, for example, there may be no trees arounds to be used as improvised splints. Therefore, bringing a wire ladder splint would be extremely valuable in the event of a fracture.


    1. Nutrition and Hydration

    Winter expedition water bottles and purifiers The length of your trip will depend on what food and water you’ll take on your winter expedition. However, you must pack for every eventuality, so always take more than you think you need.

    The food should require no cooking, be easily digestible, and store well for prolonged periods. A combination of dried meat such as jerky, nuts, chocolate, granola, and dried fruit works well. If you’re taking a stove, hot chocolate, dried soup, and tea can be added.

    Carrying sufficient water and the equipment to purify any additional water is also important. Always carry at least one water bottle or collapsible water sack. Widemouthed containers are easier to refill.

    Travel water purification chemicals are based on the halogen element chlorine, either as chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, or solid chlorine. Being a strong oxidant, chlorine rapidly kills harmful micro-organisms in water like bacteria, viruses and cysts, including Giardia and Cryptosporidium. These travel water purification chemicals come in either liquid or tablet form and are lightweight and easy to carry. Just follow the instructions on the packs to quickly produce sterile clean drinking water. We stock a variety of water purifying kits, just check our site!

    An accessory pocket makes it possible to carry a water bottle on a pack hip-belt for easy access. Some water sacks (hydration bladders) designed to be stored in the pack feature a plastic hose and valve that allow drinking without slowing your pace.

    In cold environments, a stove, fuel, pot, and lighter are needed to melt snow for additional water.


    1. A tent/shelter

    Winter expedition tarps and sheltersIf your winter expedition will last more than a day trip, it’s paramount that you carry some sort of shelter (in addition to a rain shell) from rain and wind, such as a plastic tube tent or a jumbo plastic bin bag. Another possibility is a reflective emergency blanket, which can also be used in administering first aid to an injured or hypothermic person.

    Carry an insulated sleeping pad too, to reduce heat loss while sitting or lying on snow.

    We have lots of different tarps that are lightweight to pack, easy to assemble and provide wind and rain shelter from your camp and tent. Keeping you warm and dry.



  2. Essential kit for your summer expedition

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    Whether you’re off to climb a mountain with your mates or taking the family on a camping trip, you’re going to need the right kit for your summer adventure. Thankfully, we have you covered with everything from sleeping bags to socks…

    Sleeping bags

    After a long day of exploring, you can head back to the tent and get a great night’s sleep thanks to our luxurious Synthetic Sleeping Bags.

    Lightweight and exceptionally breathable, they’re made from fabric that’s both water repellent and windproof, with a luxurious down-like feel.

    Additional comfort comes from a head-hugging hood, jumbo neck baffles and a ‘profiling’ construction technique which eliminates cold spots, to keep you exceptionally warm during the night. Win!


    Speaking of warmth, it may be summer, but when you’re sleeping outside or trekking up a mountain, it’s important to have a toasty base layer to keep you from getting chilly.

    Our thermal base-layers are ideal for wearing underneath your clothes.

    Thanks to their snug fit offering plenty of stretch, they act like a second skin to trap in heat, while a hydrophilic treatment in the fabric works to keep perspiration at bay.

    What’s more, the range is fit for any activity, from hiking and running to rowing and skiing. Which is great news if you’re planning an epic summer of activities!


    As we all know, the British summer has a habit of being annoyingly unpredictable. To ensure you’re prepared for all weather, pick up one of our windproof softshell jackets.

    Made from the most advanced wind-resistant fabric, they act as a barrier against the wind to stop it from penetrating through to your under-layers.

    The insulating, soft-fleece inner allows you to stay warm even on the coldest day, while the close, comfortable fit offers ample stretch, so it’s never restrictive during activity.

    With a compact, lightweight feel, you can pop it in your backpack at the start of the day, so you’ll never be caught out if the weather takes a turn for the worse!


    If you’re heading out into nature, whether that be for a hike, a cycle or just a leisurely wander through the woods, you’re going to need a great pair of socks!

    While it’s easy to throw on your regular, every day socks for a trek or a run, they’re not going to give you the same level of comfort and protection as a pair that are tailormade for the job.

    From walking socks that offer padding and insulation, to ski socks that come with cushioned shin and ankle guards; when it comes to activity, the right pair of socks can make a world of difference.


    Now we have your clothing covered, let’s move on to those essential expedition accessories.

    A good, sturdy rucksack is a must-have for the likes of hiking and camping trips.

    Our lightweight range is designed to take the grunt work out of lugging around your kit.

    Ultra-lightweight yet sturdy, it’s great for anyone who’s wanting to beat their personal best in a mountain marathon or adventure race. If you’re not racing, it’s also spot on to use as a simple hiking bag.

    With adjustable, padded shoulder straps, stain resistant fabric, water resistant pockets and a built-in emergency whistle, it’s compact, secure and incredibly stylish for the ultimate adventure accessory.

    And while we’re on the subject of bags… if you’re adventuring with the family this summer, don’t forget to check out our range of children’s rucksacks. They have all the same practicalities of the adult range, but with colourful, fun designs that are sure to keep the kids happy!

    Water Bottles

    Even if the weather isn’t playing nice, it’s important to stay hydrated during activity. Keep your water levels topped up with our Klean Kanteen Stainless Steel Water Bottles.

    Not only do they look stylish, they’re also strong, durable, eco-friendly and BPA free.

    Better still, they’re made with electro-polished materials that don’t retain flavours, so you can always expect a refreshing drink without any bad-tasting residue.

    With a leak-resistant lid and a soft, silicon spout, they’re ideal for packing into your rucksack when you’re off for a hike.

    There’s even one for the kids too!


    To satisfy your hunger after a long day of adventure, it’s nice to gather round the campfire for a good, hearty meal.

    With our impressive range of cooking pots, you can do just that.

    Made with anodised aluminium and titanium alloys, they’re lightweight and easy-to-use, with a strong resistance to scratches and dents.

    To keep your food from sticking, they have a Teflon coating and ceramic finish, which also makes it easy to wash and clean them regularly.

    If that isn’t enough, the lids are made from BPA-free Tritan plastic and grip-friendly silicon, which doubles up as a colander, so there’s no need to pack any weighty serving dishes.

    If you’re short on utensils, we have you covered for those too, from stainless steel cutlery sets to camping plates and bowls.

    It’s safe to say that with all this fancy cooking gear, you can kiss goodbye to those cans of cold beans!

    Navigation Tools

    If you’re going off the grid this summer, you’re going to need a reliable map and compass on hand to navigate your trip.

    Even in this day and age, not everywhere has GPS, so from a safety point of view, it’s always a great idea to do things the old-fashioned way!

    Our compass range is compact and easy to carry, with most offering slots for lanyards, so you can just pop one around your neck.

    To keep your maps dry, try our waterproof map bags. Made from resilient triple polymer film, they’re available in three different sizes, each one offering a press-to-lock seal to secure your map in even the most extreme weather.

    To top it off, they’re also touch screen compatible so you can use them for your phones too. …You know, just in case you can get GPS along the way!


    For fishing, climbing and camping, there’s nothing more efficient than the Multimate Multitool.

    Made from top quality stainless steel with rubber handle grips, it comes packed with features including sprung pliers, wire strippers, screwdrivers, a knife, bottle opener, can opener, awl, saw and rope cutter. Talk about multi-talented!

    What’s more, there’s even a handy key ring attachment so you can hook it to your belt or rucksack for quick and easy access.

    Outdoor first aid kit

    In case of any accidents on your summer expedition, make sure to pack an Outdoor First Aid Kit.

    Developed with the input of paramedics and search and rescue doctors, they’re fully equipped to cover a wide range of injuries sustained from hiking, running, mountaineering and skiing. And as they’re small enough to fit in your pocket or bag, there’s really no excuse not to have one on hand.

    As the Scouts say, always be prepared!

    Feeling ready for adventure? Us too!

    To pick up your essential expedition kit, check out the full range.






  3. The difference between walking boots and trekking shoes

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    It’s incredibly important to have a pair of comfortable footwear when you are walking or trekking.

    With footwear, you need to pick the right choice for your feet, activity and terrain. Without them, it can lead to bruised, sore feet that could end your walk or trek earlier than expected.

    As similar activities, it can be confusing to understand the difference between walking and trekking, and why they may use different footwear.

    That’s why we’ve put together this guide so you can tell the difference between the two and pick your perfect footwear.

    Walking boots

    Walking, or hiking, is a leisurely activity of walking long routes or nature trails. Walking is generally completed in a day, but can involve overnight stays in camping sites, hostels or huts along the way.

    Walking boots are sturdy, thick boots that provide protection for your feet. With a tough sole and high ankles, walking boots help provide support for your foot and prevent you from spraining or rolling your ankles.

    The thick protective material will also limit your range of movement, which can feel too restrictive for some walkers. The material will also need breaking in before big walks, otherwise, the shoes can be uncomfortable and cause rubbing or blisters.

    Walking boots are also made with waterproof materials to keep your feet dry in wet conditions.

    However, the waterproofing and thick material mean that water vapour can’t escape easily.

    So, if you need to cross rivers or your feet are fully submerged in water, your shoes will take a long time to dry out. If you wear them in the summer months, your feet will sweat more easily and can cause blisters.

    Overall, walking boots are strong, sturdy waterproof boots perfect for the colder months. They are also durable and can last you up to 1,000 miles when looked after.

    Trekking shoes

    Trekking is a multi-day long distance walk, where you will carry all your luggage and essential items with you. In general, trekking is a more challenging activity than walking and takes places in areas where other means of transport can’t access.

    Trekking shoes, such as trail runners, are made from lightweight and more flexible materials than walking boots. The lightweight material offers more flexibility, giving you a better range of movement in your feet.

    Trekking shoes are perfect for those who prefer lightweight footwear and are the ideal choice to get an overall lightweight kit. The shoes also need no breaking in and are ready for action right away.

    Designed with a low-cut ankle and multiple mesh patches, trekking shoes give you maximum breathability. As they are fast-drying, they are great for crossing rivers or through the summer months.

    However, trekking shoes aren’t as waterproof as walking boots and can’t offer the same amount of warmth through the winter.

    The lightweight material also doesn’t offer the same amount of protection as walking boots. With narrow soles, you can feel bumps and rocks under your feet which can be uncomfortable on the long days.

    Overall, trekking shoes are a lightweight, breathable and fast-drying shoe. However, they don’t offer the same protection, warmth or durability as walking boots.

    On average, trekking shoes should be replaced every 500 miles to prevent potential damage to your feet.


    Overall, walking boots are tough, durable and waterproof boots that protect your feet. Trekking shoes don’t offer the same protection or durability but are more lightweight, breathable and flexible.

    When choosing between walking boots and trekking shoes, it’s important to bear in mind the weather and type of terrain you are going to face.

    During the summer months, or places where you are likely to cross a river you may prefer the fast-drying trekking booths. However, in wet, and colder months the waterproof walking boots may be the better fit.

  4. Best lightweight thermal underwear for Autumn weather

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    What is the best lightweight thermal underwear for changeable Autumn weather?

    Autumn can be an unpredictable month as one day it can be scorching hot whilst the next day you can get out of your tent and find ground frost. This swing in the weather cycle is not ideal if you are out on the hills for a  prolonged period of time as you have to pack for all eventualities. But how do you fine the best lightweight thermal underwear for the job? Researching the following four  properties when buying thermal underwear should help you get the best from your purchase.


    Best lightweight thermal underwear Sub Zero Factor 1 plusTo lighten your load it is a good idea to wear thermal underwear that will adapt to both hot and cold conditions. This is not  an endorsement for  thermal brands that claim they will keep you cool in summer and hot in winter. Anyone with a simple grasp of physics or textiles knows this is an impossibility. The best you can hope to achieve is a lightweight thermal  base layer that will insulate you in the cooler weather, but not be so insulating that you start to cook when the sun comes out.

    But how do you know how insulating/warm a thermal underwear brand is going to be? A simple but underused test is the TOG, which measures the thermal resistance of a fabric.  You have probably seen it used on duvets, mattresses and pillows, and the lower the figure, the less insulating it is. In the Autumn you need a lightweight thermal underwear brand that has a TOG rating of between 0.35-0.50. Anything higher and you are going to be too warm, anything lower and you will chill.

    Wicking Rates

    What this means is basically how quick perspiration is moved from the skins surface to the outside surface of the fabric, so it can evaporate or be moved on to the next clothing layer. The best lightweight thermal underwear garments will have a hydrophilic treatment applied to them. These chemicals actively aid the movement of moisture – hydrophilic means water loving – so vastly improve the fabrics own moisture transportation system. In the cooler Autumnal weather this process keeps a dry layer of air next to the skin (air being the insulator) helping you to keep warm. In warmer weather you will probably wear the lightweight thermal underwear on its own. A quick wicking rate will pump moisture out to the surface of the thermal and allow evaporation. This will help to cool you as water has a high heat capacity and needs a lot of energy to phase change i.e. transform from a  liquid to a gas.  In layman’s term, your excess body heat is absorbed by the water on the fabrics surface to change to a gas,  or evaporate as us mere mortals know the process.

    Construction and Fit

    Best lightweight thermal underwear needs good construction and fitThirdly, the lightweight thermal underwear must be snug fitting. By snug I do not mean restricting blood to an appendage so it goes purple with loss of circulation.  The base layer must be close fitting so no air can be wafted when you move. For someone who has not got the body of David Beckham this is not going to be a pretty sight as a good fitting thermal will contour to all your lumps and bumps. However, this close fit ensures that air is trapped next to the skin, insulating the wearer. It also aids hydrophilic treatments as they only work efficiently when there is a heat gradient. The best way to achieve this is by having the fabric in close contact to the skin.

    The best lightweight thermal underwear garments will also be constructed sympathetically to your activity. Look for thermal underwear that has a long body length so when you bend over to pick something up or tie your shoe laces your lower back does not become exposed. The sleeves should also be of a significant length that when you lift your arms they do not ride up and expose much your skin.


    Finally, your choice in colour will also play an important part in how cool and hot you feel. Black is a good absorber of light wavelengths and will attract more energy from the sun than a lighter colour. However, black is also a good radiator of heat so in overcast weather it will loose heat quicker than a lighter colour. White is obviously the best colour for reflecting heat as it absorbs very little light. If you need thermal underwear in the autumn and are not sure on what weather conditions you are going to be subjected to then choose a colour between the extremes of white and black.

  5. The British Mountaineering Council (BMC) Courses And Data Sheets

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    The BMC organises a range of good practice courses, lectures and seminars, including:


    With partners, the BMC produces a range of safety and skills information, including:


    The BMC website also contains safety & skills advice, including:


  6. BMC Crag Code Of Conduct

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    The BMC has produced a code of conduct – the Crag Code – to encourage the sustainable use of crags in England and Wales. The code consists of ten important reminders for people visiting our crags – from respecting the rock and other people to keeping to established footpaths and keeping dogs under control. Whilst the majority of climbers and boulderers have a positive attitude towards crag access and protection, the BMC felt a code was needed to help prevent situations whereby access may come under threat.

    • Access: Check the Regional Access Database (RAD) for the latest access information
    • Parking: Park carefully – avoid gateways and driveways
    • Footpaths: Keep to established paths and leave gates as you find them
    • Risk: Climbing can be dangerous, accept the risks and be aware of other people around you
    • Respect: Groups and individuals  – respect the rocks, local climbing ethics and other people
    • Wildlife: Do not disturb livestock, wildlife or cliff vegetation; respect seasonal bird nesting restrictions
    • Dogs: Keep dogs under control at all times; don’t let your dog chase sheep or disturb wildlife
    • Litter: ‘Leave no trace’ – take all litter home with you
    • Toilets: Don’t make a mess – bury your waste
    • Economy: Do everything you can to support the rural economy – shop locally


  7. MountainSafe Partnership Advice For Sponsored Events

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    With an increase in the number of organised events taking place on Snowdonia’s mountains, organisers and participants are encouraged to take extra precautions before embarking on such challenges. Recently, there has been an increase in sponsored walks and charity events being held in Snowdonia, which in turn has resulted in an increase in the number of emergency calls as groups get into difficulty on the mountains. As a result, the MountainSafe Partnership is appealing to organisers and participants to prepare themselves thoroughly before venturing on their challenge, and to be responsible and safe whilst enjoying the experience of walking the mountains of Snowdonia, and fundraising at the same time.


    On behalf of MountainSafe, its Chairman Phil Benbow said, “We are eager for people to enjoy themselves as they come to Snowdonia and therefore are asking people to remember five things before they start out:

    1. Prepare in advance by ensuring that all participants are aware of the challenge ahead of them and that they are fit and are properly equipped.

    2. Weather – check the Met Office website for the latest weather forecast for Snowdonia and don’t be afraid to cancel your event if conditions are unfavourable.

    3. Stay together – you are only as strong as your weakest member. Consider the whole group – don’t leave anyone behind.

    4. Remember to have a backup emergency plan. There is no guarantee of a phone signal in the mountains and the mountain rescue service is an emergency service for emergency cases only.

    5. Respect the mountain, local communities and other people and follow all local codes of conduct, including the Countryside Code, and take your litter home with you.


    In remembering these five important points, participants are more likely to enjoy their experience and to succeed in their effort to raise money for their favourite charities. “


    John Grisdale, Chairman of the Llanberis Mountain Rescue Team, added, “My concern about these groups is based on their lack of understanding of the mountains and the environment. For example, last week, we were called out to rescue three young men who decided not to follow the normal path. They weren’t wearing appropriate clothing or shoes, they didn’t have any directions, no leader and the gully they got stuck on was precarious for the rescue helicopter. Although most achieve their goal with a sense of satisfaction, if weather conditions are unfavourable, and there is a lack of knowledge by walkers, there’s an increased risk of accidents.”


    Further advice on organising events in the mountains of Snowdonia can be found on Llanberis Mountain Rescue Team’s website – –  or contact the National Park Authority –

  8. BMC – Working For Hill Walkers

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    The membership of the British Mountaineering Council (BMC; is made up of approximately 75,000 climbers, hill walkers and mountaineers. The majority of the members participate in hill walking and about 20% of them are purely hill walkers who don’t go climbing. The name may not make it obvious that the BMC works hard for hill walkers.

    Its work for hill walkers includes:

    • Campaigning for access and conservation

    • Publishing good practice advice and organising training events

    • Lobbying government on issues and legislation

    • Working with partners locally and nationally, such as the Mountain Safety Forum, National Parks, land managers, conservation organisations and other representative bodies.

    • Funding projects to protect the mountain environment

    • Providing specialist insurance cover

    • Negotiating member discounts with outdoor shops and service providers

    The British hills offer beauty, challenge and adventure, as well as the opportunity to keep fit and healthy. So it’s no wonder that hill walking is such a popular activity, attracting people of all ages. Walking in the uplands requires a collection of skills, including navigation and hazard avoidance. It is important that participants are prepared with some basic equipment and knowledge in order to enjoy hill walking safely.




  9. Help And Advice For Starting Hill Walking

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    For those who are relatively or completely new to the activity of hill walking, ‘New Hill Walkers’ by the BMC highlights some essential skills you should learn and develop on your trips into the hills and mountains, and provides a reference base of resources for learning the required skills. The free, 28-page booklet contains chapters on clothing and equipment, navigation, hazards, walking in winter, access and the environment, and emergency procedures.

    Download the booklet for FREE

    There’s good advice on choosing footwear and a rucksack as well as practical info on dressing to cope with the demands of weather and seasons in the hills. Insulating layers are the key to all day comfort – as the guide says:

    The range of temperatures experienced in one day will often be greater in the hills than in cities. Clothing to deal with such variation is therefore required. With the weight of your rucksack contents an important consideration, choosing items that fulfil a range of functions is a good idea. Waterproofs double up as windproofs for example.”

    It makes the point that, “It is better to wear several relatively thin layers than a single thick one, because the layers trap air which is a good insulator, and you can regulate your temperature more effectively by adding or removing layers. Materials which do not absorb moisture are better because wet clothes will make you feel cold.” Plus, “The baselayer should wick moisture away from your body, and so keep your skin dry and prevent excessive chilling every time you stop. As well as providing insulation, a thin midlayer also allows moisture to wick.”

  10. Top Clothing Tips For Outdoor Winter Activities

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    In the depths of winter, it’s obvious to think carefully about dressing for a day in the hills. That’s when snow, cold and wind are on the agenda. However, whilst snow on the tops in summer is highly unlikely, hillwalkers still need to dress sensibly.

    ‘Sensibly’ means much more than avoiding the shorts and sandals scenarios that crop up regularly in mountain rescue stories. It means having a flexible combination of clothing that can cope easily with changing weather conditions and varying levels of exertion, allowing you can be in control of managing your body temperature. Plus, of course, it means being comfortable throughout the day whether slogging up a mountain track or being battered by the wind on an open ridge. The trick is to balance layers to ensure adjustable warmth and protection, levelling out the extremes of over-heating and shivering with cold to achieve a happy equilibrium.

    Being next to your skin, base layers are not just about warmth. By drawing sweat through their fibres to evaporate they avoid becoming damp, cold and uncomfortable. Depending on the time of year, different weights offer a variety of comfort options and, of course, they can be worn on their own in mild conditions. In cold conditions, thermal base layers ensure good retention of body heat. Relatively new, cooling base layers not only whisk sweat away but also help to avoid overheating as they have low heat retention.

    The mid layer is all about insulation, trapping warm air to maintain your core body temperature; options include fleece as well as goose down and synthetic fills, such as Primaloft. Zips allow ventilation and, even on a sunny day, a warm top should packed in your rucksack as a pleasant outlook in the valley could turn out very different a few hundred feet higher up.

    The outer layer protects you from the elements. Rain is the obvious offender but wind can whip heat away and chill you to the bone so being windproof is a key consideration. ‘Softshell’ tops are not completely waterproof but are windproof, stretchy and can cope with a wide range of wet weather.

    If you want to make sure you never suffer from cold feet again then slip on a pair of thermal over socks. Finally, don’t forget hats and gloves. Quickly slipped on and off, they allow conservation or loss of body heat to be adjusted easily. Keep them handy in pockets rather than buried in your rucksack.

    With your plans made and dressed sensibly, don’t forget to let a responsible person know where you’re going and when you expect to return. Let them know when you do get back to avoid needless call-outs for mountain rescue teams.

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